Skip to main content

Full text of "Musical instruments at Yale : a selection of Western instruments from the 15th to 20th centuries"

See other formats


[ML 
462 

(y 241*3 





Musical Instruments at Yale 



LIBRARY OF 
WELLESLEY COLLEGE 




PRESENTED BY 



'.I 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 with funding from 
Wellesley College Library 



http://archive.org/details/musicalinstrumenOOyale 



cover: Bass viola da gamba by Giovanni Battista Ciciliano. Venice, mid-i6th century. Cat. No. 14 



Musical Instruments at Yale 



A SELECTION OF WESTERN INSTRUMENTS FROM THE I5TH TO 20TH CENTURIES 



CATALOGUE BY SIBYL MARCUSE EXHIBITION DIRECTED BY STANTON L. CATLIN 



SPONSORED BY THE FRIENDS OF MUSIC AT YALE AND THE YALE UNIVERSITY ART GALLERY ASSOCIATES 



FEBRUARY IQ. MARCH 27, i960 YALE UNIVERSITY ART GALLERY 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND COUNCIL OF THE FRIENDS OF MUSIC AT YALE 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Edward R. Wardwell, Chairman 
Beekman C. Cannon, V ice-Chairman 
Charles S. Gage, Treasurer 
Mrs. Lewis P. Curtis, Secretary 
CourtlandtD. Barnes, Jr. 
Luther Noss 
Brooks Shepard, Jr. 



COUNCIL 

Parker Bailey 
J. Richard Banks 
Courtlandt D. Barnes, Jr. 
Marshall Bartholomew 
Beekman C. Cannon 
J ames W. Cooper 
Oscar Cox 
Mrs. Lewis P. Curtis 
Robert E. Darling 
John E. Ellsworth 
Charles S. Gage 
Irving S. Gilmore 
G. Lauder Greenway 



S. Ellsworth Grumman 
Fenno F. Heath, Jr. 
Mrs. C. Beecher Hogan 
Ralph Kirkpatrick 
Richard Korn 
Luther Noss 
Mrs. James M. Osborn 
Brooks Shepard, Jr. 
Bruce Simonds 
Gregory Smith 
Francis B. Thorne 
Edward R. Wardwell 
Laurence C. Witten, II 



OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE YALE UNIVERSITY ART GALLERY ASSOCIATES 



OFFICERS 



Mrs. Paul Moore, Chairman 
Wilmarth S. Lewis, Vice-Chairman 
Charles S. Gage, Treasurer 
Andrew C. Ritchie, Secretary 



HONORARY TRUSTEES 

Miss Elizabeth Achelis 
William A. Delano 
Duncan Phillips 
Mrs. Hannah D. Rabinowitz 
Miss Edith Wetmore 



©The Yale University Art Gallery, ig6o 



TRUSTEES 

Walter Bareiss 
Stephen C. Clark 
Mrs. Richard E. Danielson 
Bruce B. Dayton 
James W. Fosburgh 
Mrs. James W. Fosburgh 
Mrs. Francis P. Garvan 
G. Lauder Greenway 
Allen Grover 
Henry J. Heinz, II 
Mrs. Frederick W. Hilles 
Mrs. Nils R. Johaneson 



Seymour H. Knox 
Robert Lehman 
Wilmarth S. Lewis 
Mrs. Paul Moore 
Charles Nagel 
Irving S. Olds 
Fred Olsen 
Stuart Preston 
Joseph Verner Reed 
R. Sargent Shriver, Jr. 
John S. Thacher 
George B. Young 



Foreword Studies in the history of musical instruments, including their performance, have 

hitherto been pursued chiefly by a few specialists and connoisseurs. Curricular 
studies in these disciplines are an established part of musical training at Yale, and 
in this activity the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments plavs a 
fundamental role. It is partially to focus attention upon this function and upon the 
quality of the collection that this exhibition is presented. Considered in terms of 
appearance musical instruments suggest a close relation to the so-called represen- 
tational arts. On the one hand the craft of the instrument maker often achieves 
distinction by following forms allied to furniture and architecture and by adopting 
the representational or decorative aims of painting. The visual arts in turn reveal 
a long and rich tradition of subject matter based on musical instruments. 

The purpose of the present collaborative exhibition, then, is two-fold: first, to 
encourage an interest in the historical instrument as it bears upon the music of its 
time and upon general questions of technical mastery, and secondly, to give the 
visitor an opportunity to compare actual instruments with their representation in 
a selected group of paintings, drawings and other works of art having musical con- 
tent or associations. From both points of view the sponsors hope that their under- 
taking will further a teaching objective held in common: the training of the esthetic 
faculties for the discernment of lasting artistic value. 

On behalf of the two sponsoring organizations we present our warmest thanks 
to the owners of the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical Instruments for the 
privilege of including instruments from their collection, on loan to Yale, and 
to the museums, galleries, and collectors who generously lent paintings, drawings 
and other works of art with musical themes to the supplementary exhibition, re- 
corded in the check-list insert to this catalogue; To the organizers of the exhibition, 
Sibyl Marcuse, Curator of the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments, 
who selected the instruments and wrote the catalogue; to Stanton L. Catlin, As- 
sistant Director of the Yale University Art Gallery, who directed the exhibition and 
selected the supplementary display; to Brooks Shepard, Jr., Librarian of the Yale 
School of Music; to Peter Millard, architectural consultant; and to the members of 
the staffs of the Art Gallery and the Yale Music Library for their indispensable help 
in realizing the exhibition and its catalogue, we express our sincere gratitude. 

Luther Noss, Dean Andrew Carnduff Ritchie, Director 

Yale University School of Music Yale University Art Gallery 



Musical Instruments at Yale 



The Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments was established in 1900, 
when the late Morris Steinert gave the major portion of his collection to the Univer- 
sity. His great interest had been in pianos and their predecessors, so that his collec- 
tion comprised predominantly keyboard instruments. But he played the cello, 
became interested in early bowed strings and collected them. The residue of his 
collection consisted chiefly in instruments of the viol family. But Steinert's collection 
was not static. Like many a collector, he periodically acquired and disposed of speci- 
mens, and thus some of his most beautiful keyboards went to Miss Belle Skinner, 
who was forming a collection of her own. This has long since been known as the 
Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical Instruments. It was housed in her home 
at Holyoke, Massachusetts until 1959, when it was loaned to Yale. It also is very 
rich in keyboards, and plucked strings are well represented. Both collections have 
a common failing: they are very weak in winds. Over the years the Yale Collection 
has been enlarged, mainly through donations of instruments, and occasional acquisi- 
tions have been made possible by financial assistance from private donors and the 
Friends of Music at Yale. Curiously enough, like seems to attract like: our already 
strong keyboard section has been increased by some important items, several of 
which are on display, but our wind section has received little stimulus. 

It is a policy of the Yale Collection to maintain as many of its instruments as 
possible in playing condition. A program of restoration was inaugurated several 
years ago to this effect, and is still in progress. Since the restoration of musical in- 
struments is often a two-fold one, musical and visual, the visitor will in many cases 
be able to determine the extent of accomplishment for himself. 



erratum In the next-to-last paragraph of the introductory article 
"Musical Instruments at Yale," "(No. 10)" should read "(No. 9)." 



The instruments shown here were selected for different reasons. Some for the 
renown of their maker (those by the Ruckers, by Taskin and Kirkman), some be- 
cause they are so typical of their species (the Hitchcock spinet, the Leversidge vir- 
ginal), some for their beauty of form (the oboe, the Venetian virginal), others again 
for their rarity (the Cicilian viol, the early bugle, the double virginal), or unusual 
features (the Staufer cello, the Hass harpsichord) and some for their lavish decora- 
tion (the two guitars), but most of them for an interplay of these features. And one 
instrument at least, a Ruckers harpsichord (No. 10), was chosen for the reason that 
so little of the original instrument has survived. We know that long after its musical 
usefulness had become impaired, many an instrument was preserved for its beauty 
of tone; when it became outdated, its compass would be extended, it would be 
modernized, rebuilt sometimes, repainted or redecorated, according to the prevail- 
ing demands of music and of fashion. The Ruckers harpsichord is a good illustration 
of such procedure, which in this case was achieved over a span of three centuries. 
It would be hard to imagine a greater compliment to its maker; despite the fact that. 
paradoxically enough, little of his handiwork remains. 

Since these instruments cannot fulfill their main function, namely that of being 
heard, I hope they will fulfill the other half of the dual function assigned to them by 
the Renaissance, that of pleasing both the eye and the ear: "il vedere ^ I'udire," as 
Fioravanti puts it. 



SIBYL MARCUSE 



Plates 



All instruments in the exhibition are illustrated Plate numbers correspond to catalogue and exhibition numbers 




2 A 




jj jtf *J fej Ll tJ il_ 



I III II III II 111 1\ 



2 B 




// A 




// c 




12 




'3 





14 a 



14 B,C 




'5 



i6 





n 




i8 




ig a 




ig b 



20 A.B 




21 A 









21 B 



22 





... 



A 



2 3 




M 




2 5 



26 



Catalogue All dimensions are given in inches and centimeters 

Indications of the scale of harpsichords are given for the longer of the two 8 ft. registers 
On bowed strings, the vibrating string length has been measured from nut to top of bridge 



OTTAVINA SPINET ITALIAN 



I7TH CENTURY 

Made by Abel Adam in Turin, 1657. 

Nameboard inscribed: "Abel Adam MDCLVN"; back of 
nameboard signed: "Alari" (the Roman harpischord 
maker?), also inscribed in ink: "Restored at 7 Bayley Street, 
London, Sept. 1879 by Arnold Dolmetsch." Cypress case. 
Pine soundboard. Exterior of case and lid painted a dappled 
pattern on yellow background. Projecting keyboard. Com- 
pass 4 octaves, c to c 4 , with bass short octave. Dimensions: 
32" (81.3) x 16 3/4" (42.5) x 51/4" (14). 1 choir of 
strings at 4' pitch. Scale: c 273/4" (7°-5)> c& 7 T / 2 " ( x 9)> 
c 4 3 5/8" (9.2). (208) 

An ottavina is a small spinet at 4 ft. pitch, usually portable. 
We know from two other ottavinas of his that Adam 
worked in Turin {"Abel Adam Fecit Tavrini"). As all 
three instruments have pine soundboards, it is likely that 
their maker was of northern origin. 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Gregory B. Smith 

2 OTTAVINA SPINET FRENCH 1 8TH CENTURY 

Made by Pascal T as \in in Paris, 1778. 
Nameboard inscribed: "Fait par Pascal Taskin A Paris 
1778." Soundboard dated "1778." Case and lid varnished 
over ivory background; interior of lid and nameboard deli- 
cately painted. No soundhole, but painted "rose" on sound- 
board with maker's initials: "P T." Compass 5 octaves and 
a note, E to f\ Dimensions: 41 3/8" (105) x 24 1/4" (61.5) 
x 8" (20.3). Scale: E 39" (99), c 3 6 3/4" (17.2), f 4 2 1/2" 
(6.3). (224) 

Taskin, the greatest of French makers, was a Belgian who 



migrated to Paris. His surviving instruments are so rare 
that his native country does not possess a single example of 
his work- We are proud to be able to display the only two 
plucked instruments of his at present known to be in the 
New World. This ottavina is said to have belonged to Marie- 
Antoinette. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 

3 VIRGINAL ENGLISH I7TH CENTURY 

Made by Adam Leversidge in London, 1666. 
Jackrail inscribed: "Adamus Leversidge Londini Fecit 
1666." Back of nameboard inscribed: "Restored by Chicker- 
ing and Sons under the direction of / Arnold Dolmetsch 
Boston U.S.A. 1909." Case and concave lid of oak. Interior 
of lid painted, as is soundboard; interior of case decorated 
with embossed gilt paper. Keyboard to left. Dimensions: 
66 1/2" (169) x 35 1/4" (89.5) x 11" (29). Compass 4 oc- 
taves and a seventh, G r to f 3 , with bass short octave. Scale: 
G.6I 1/2" (156.2), c 2 11 7/8" (29), f 3 4 i/2"(ii. 4 ). 

The only other surviving instrument of Leversidge, also a 
virginal, is in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. All told, 
only 18 English virginals are k nown t0 us today. They all 
fall within the years 1 641 -1679. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 

4 DOUBLE VIRGINAL FLEMISH l6TH CENTURY 

Made by Hans Ruckers in Antwerp, late 16th century. 
Jackrails of both instruments inscribed: "Johannes Ruquers 
Me Fecit," vet each bears a rose of Hans Ruckers. The date 



"i59 I /A" appears On a painting on the interior of the lid 
representing the contest between Apollo and Marsyas, not 
on the instrument proper. Removable ottavina to left of in- 
strument. The virginal measures 67 1/4" (171) x 19 1/2" 
(49.5) x 10 1/2" (26.7). The ottavina measures 321/4" 
(82) x 16 1/2" (42) with projecting keyboard, x 5 1/4" 
(13.3). Keyboards of both instruments are modern. Com- 
pass of both 4 octaves chromatic, C to c 3 . The virginal has 1 
choir of strings at 8' pitch, the ottavina 1 choir at 4' pitch. 
Scale: 8': C 57" (144.8), c 2 12 3/8" (31.5), c 3 7 1/4" (18.5); 
4': c 27 1/4" (69.2), c 3 6 1/2" (16.5), c 4 3 1/2" (8.8). 
Nameboard of main instrument is a modern replacement. 

The double virginal was a Flemish specialty: the Flemings 
called them "mother and child." Only 8 have survived, jour 
of them by Hans Ruc\ers. For playing, the ottavina was 
removed from its compartment. It is so constructed that 
by placing it immediately over the virginal, its keys are 
activated by the virginal's ]ac\s. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 

5 VIRGINAL ITALIAN l6TH CENTURY 

Made by Domenico of Venice in 1556. 

Jackrail inscribed: "Domenicus Venetus Fecit MDLVI." 
Cypress case covered with red velvet. Compass 4 octaves, 
C to c 3 with bass short octave. Dimensions: 60" (152.5) x 
i*j 1/4" (43.8) x 77/8" (20). 1 choir of strings at 8' pitch. 
Scale: C 52 1/2" (133.4), c 2 14" (35.5), c 3 7 3/8" (18.8). 

Unlike most instruments of this type, the keyboard does not 
project. At some time in the past, pedals were attached to 
the 9 lowest keys of this instrument. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 

6 CLAVICHORD AMERICAN 20TH CENTURY 

Made by Chickcring & Sons in Boston, igo8. 
Nameboard inscribed: "Chickering & Sons Boston USA 
MCMVIII No. 32"; pinblock inscribed: "Made by Chicker- 
ing & Sons under the direction of Arnold Dolmetsch. Boston 
USA MCMVII (sic) No. 32." Exterior of case and lid of 
green lacquer, interior of red lacquer. Interior of lid bears 
motto: "Musica magnorum est solamen dulce laborum." 
Compass 5 octaves, F x to f 3 . Unfretted. Duple strung 



throughout. Dimensions: 67 5/8" (171. 8) x 20" (50.8) x 
6" (15.2). Scale: F, 56 1/4" (142.5), c a 10" (25.4), f 3 1/4" 
(8.3). 2 roses. (220) 

Arnold Dolmetsch (i8y8-ig4o) , a Frenchman by birth, 
settled in England, spent igo$ to igog at Chickcring & Sons 
in Boston. During this time about 7$ instruments must have 
been produced in his department — chiefly keyboards. The 
"Chickering-Dolmetsches," as they are affectionately called, 
are prized as collectors' items. 

Gift of Mrs. William Churchill Hammond and her sons 

7 SPINET ENGLISH l8TH CENTURY 

Made by John Hitchcock in London, ca. ijjo. 
Nameboard inscribed: "Johannes Hitchcock Londini Fecit." 
Walnut case, mahogany lid. Compass 5 octaves, G 1 to g 3 . 
Dimensions: 77" (195.6) x 29 1/2" (75) x 8" (20.3). 1 
choir of strings at 8' pitch. Scale: d 62 5/8" (59.1), c 2 
10 1/4" (26), g 3 4" (10.2). Inside of instrument is inscribed: 
"Culliford No. 10." Modern jackrail and music desk. (5) 

Instruments of this wing-shaped jorm are popularly k nown 
as "legs of mutton." For over a century this type of spinet 
fulfilled the functions of our modern "spinet piano": it was 
a space saving, relatively inexpensive house instrument. 

Gift of Morris Steinert 

8 HARPSICHORD FLEMISH I7TH CENTURY 

Made by Hans Ruckers in Antwerp, 1612. 
Two manuals. No signature, but rose with maker's initials: 
"H R," and date "1612" on soundboard. Wrestplank in- 
scribed: "Mis a ravalement par Pascal Taskin a Paris 1774"; 
also stamped: "Restaure par Tomasini a Paris 1905." Case, 
both sides of lid and dropleaf painted by Adam Frans Van 
der Meulen. Soundboard ornamented with flowers. Stand 
is a 20th century reproduction. Compass 5 octaves, Fi to r. 
Dimensions: 891/4" (226.8) x 351/4" (89.5) x 11" (38). 
2 choirs of strings at 8' pitch and 1 at 4' pitch. 4 rows 
of jacks and push-in coupler. Scale: 8': Fi 69 1/4" (175.9), 
c 2 14" (35-5)>f ! 5 1/2" (14). 4': F 43 1/2" (no), c 3 6 1/2" 
(16.5), f 4 3" (7.6). Interior of lid shows Louis XIV on horse- 
back accompanied by his entourage; case and dropleaf con- 
tain views of various towns, scenes of the king's campaigns. 

In iyyy this instrument was owned by the Sieur de la Che- 



vardiere, a Paris music publisher and teacher. It has been 
frequently written about as having belonged to the French 
court — wrongly, I believe. At any rate, it passed to Prince 
Torlonia, from him to Viscount Powers-Court, then to Sir 
Edgar Speyer, finally to Major Bowes, after whose death it 
was auctioned off ... at Gimbel's. Sic transit gloria mundi/ 

On loan from Sibyl Marcuse 

9 HARPSICHORD FLEMISH I7TH CENTURY 

Made by Johannes Ruc\ers in Antwerp, 162-. 
Two manuals. Jackrail (not original) reads: "Iohannes 
Ruckers Me fecit Antverpiae 16 . ." (last 2 digits illegible).. 
Nameboard reads: "H. Rukher / Antwerpiae." Nameboard 
slip inscribed: "Refait par Blanchet Facteur du Roi A Paris 
c.1750." (Apparently the last digit formerly read "6"). 
Wrestplank inscribed: "Restored by Chickering and Sons / 
under the direction of / Arnold Dolmetsch / Boston U.S.A. 
1908." Rose with maker's initials: "I. R." Exterior of case 
and lid painted with floral sprays; cheeks and nameboard 
with cornflowers over goldleaf; soundboard with flowers; 
interior of lid with two 18th century pastoral landscapes. 
Compass 4 octaves and a seventh, F x to e 3 . Dimensions: 91" 
(231.3) x 36" (91.3) x 10 1/2" (26.7). 2 choirs of strings 
at 8' pitch, 1 at 4' pitch. 3 rows of jacks. 2 handstops and 
push-in coupler. Scale: 8': ¥ 1 68 3/4" (174.6) c 2 13 7/8" 
(35-2) e! 5 5/8" (14.2). 4': F 43 3/8" (110.2), c 3 6 1/2" 
(16), e 4 2 3/4" (7). 

When the instrument's compass was enlarged in the 18th 
century — presumably by Blanchet — an extension of some 
8in.(2o cm) was pieced on to the treble end of the bent- 
side. Blanchet was one of France's most notable keyboard 
builders, surpassed only by his pupil, Pascal Tas\in. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 

10 HARPSICHORD GERMAN l8TH CENTURY 

Made by Johann Adolph Hass in Hamburg, ca. 1750. 
Two manuals. Soundboard inscribed in ink: "J. A. Hass / 
Hamb. Anno 1710," but third digit of date has been tam- 
pered with. Exterior of case and lid painted in imitation 
tortoise-shell; interior of lid with chinoiserie, gold figures 
on red lacquer. Natural keys covered with tortoise-shell. 
Soundboard ornamented with flowers. No rose. Rounded 



tail. Compass 5 octaves, from F x to f 3 . Dimensions: 9' 1" 
(277) x 393/8" (100) x 11" (28). Disposition: 16', 2 x 8', 
4', 2. Scale: 16': F 2 851/4" (216.6), c 1 271/8" (69), f 2 
11 3/8" (29); 8': F, 731/2" (186.7), c 2 13 3/4" (35), f 3 

5 1/4" (i3-3) 5 4- F 49 1/4" (125), c 3 6 1/2" (16.5), f 4 3 1/2" 
(8.8); 2: f 341/2" (87.2), c 4 41/4" (10.8). Note: 2 nut 
and bridge have a compass of only 31/2 octaves, f to c 4 . 
16' strings have their own bridge, set on separate 16' sound- 
board. 6 rows of jacks at bass, 4 at treble end: first and sixth 
rows are for 2 register, which can be played from either 
manual (compass on upper, 21/2 octaves, f to b 2 ; on lower, 
3 1/2 octaves, f to c 4 ). Jack sequence front to back: 2 upper, 
8' upper manual; 4' lower, 8' lower, 16' lower, 2 lower 
manual. 6 handstops. 

Only one other known instrument has as elaborate a disposi- 
tion as this one, and that is a 3-manual harpsichord made by 
Hieronymous Albrecht Hass, father of our ma\er. Chinoi- 
serie and tortoise-shell were frequently employed by the 
Hass family, who in addition to their harpsichords have left 
us a number of clavichords. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 

II HARPSICHORD FRENCH 1 8TH CENTURY 

Made by Pascal Taskin in Paris, iyyo. 

Two manuals. Soundboard inscribed: "Pascal Taskin Eleve 
de Blanchet." Nameboard inscribed: "Refait par Pascal 
Taskin 1770." Wrestplank stamped: "Refait par Louis 
Tomasini en 1900/Paris." Willow case, elaborately painted, 
including spine. Compass 5 octaves, F x to f 3 . Dimensions: 
91" (261) x 37" (94) x 12 1/8" (30.9). Scale: 8': Fi 69 1/4" 
(176), c 2 14" (35-5), f 3 6J (15.2); 4': F 423/8" (107.6), c 3 

6 11/16" (17), f 4 2 15/16" (4.9). Soundboard has no sound- 
hole, but a painted "rose" with maker's initials: "P.T." (as 
on ottavina spinet No. 2). 2 choirs of strings at 8' pitch, 
and 1 at 4' pitch. 3 rows of jacks. Push-in coupler. 4 hand- 
stops. (224) 

An unusually elaborate instrument: it is rare indeed that 
the spines of harpsichords are fully decorated. The exterior 
of case, lid and dropleaf are gold-leafed and ornamented 
with painted medallions of Minerva and mythological sym- 
bols. The interior of the lid contains a painting said to be 
of the chateau de Cirey, and a portrait said to be that of 
Emilie, Marquise du Chdtelet, as Minerva. 



Gift of Mrs. Sam B. Grimson in memory of her husband 

12 HARPSICHORD ENGLISH l8TH CENTURY 

Made by Jacob Kir\man in London, iy$$. 
One manual. Nameboard inscribed: "Jacobus Kirckman 
(sic) Fecit Londini 1755." Bronze rose with maker's ini- 
tials: "I. K." Walnut case. Compass 5 octaves, F x to f 3 . 
Dimensions: 89" (226) x 36" (91.5) x 105/8" (27). 2 choirs 
of strings at 8' pitch. 3 rows of jacks: cut-through and 2 x 8'. 
3 handstops. Scale: F x 70 1/2" (179), c 2 13 5/8" (34.6), f 3 
5 3/4" (i4.5). (7) 

Jacob Kir\man, an Alsatian of Swiss extraction, settled in 
London and became the most important English harpsi- 
chord maker. This is one of the earliest of his surviving 
instruments, of which there are over a hundred. The ma- 
jority of his single manual harpsichords show a disposition 
of 2 x 8 ft. and a 4 ft.; this is one of the few that lack the 4 ft. 

Gift of Morris Steinert 

13 HURDY-GURDY FRENCH 18TH CENTURY 

Maker unknown. 18th century. 

(Repair) label in slider box: "John R. Vincent Maker Ston- 
ington Ct. March 1832." Guitar-shaped with flat back. 
Maple body. 2 melody and 4 bourdon strings. Pegbox termi- 
nates in a carved head. 10 sliders act on one melody string, 
22 on the other. Total length 26" (66), body length 19 1/2" 
(49.5), maximum width 11 1/4" (28.6), depth 4 1/4" to 
5 1/2" (10.3 to 14). (158) 

"Hurdy-gurdy" is the 18th-century English name for the 
early medieval organistrum. Already reduced to the rank of 
a blind man's instrument by the late middle ages ("aveugle 
chifonie aura"), it survived as a folk instrument, was made 
"classical" by 18th-century France, and is still in use today. 

University purchase 



14 



BASS VIOLA DA GAMBA ITALY l6TH CENTURY 



Made by Giovanni Battista Ciciliano in Venice, ca. 1550. 
Label: "Batista fiol de Antonio Cicilian in Venetia." Pine 
belly. Back and ribs of pearwood. 6 strings. Two-piece back. 
C holes. Dark brown varnish. Pegbox terminates in a scroll. 
Total length 42" (106.7), body length 235/8" (60), upper 



bouts 12 3/4" (32.5), center bouts 9 1/4" (23.5), lower 
bouts 14" (35.5), maximum depth 5 1/8" (13), vibrating 
string length 25 1/2" (64.8), but nut to center of C holes 
233/4" (60.3)- (127) 

Hitherto, Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Ciciliano or 
Siciliano, and his father, Antonio, were thought to have 
lived in the ijth century, and are so listed in the standard 
reference works on lutherie. But in his Regola Rubertina 
{Book 2 > Chap. 20) published in 1543, Silvestro Ganassi 
mentions "Messer loabattista Cicilian" as " peritissimo . . . 
del viol on." 

Gift of Morris Steinert 



15 



BASS VIOLA DA GAMBA ENGLISH l8TH CENTURY 



Maker unknown. School of Barak Norman, early 18th 
century. 

No label or signature. Pine belly. Back and ribs of maple. 
6 strings. Two-piece back. C holes. Pegbox terminates in a 
carved animal head. Neck not original. Yellow-brown 
varnish. Total length 46 1/4" (117.5), body length 27 1/2" 
(69.8), vibrating string length 265/8" (67.8), upper bouts 
127/8" (32.7), center bouts 9 1/2" (24), lower bouts 16" 
(40.6), depth 4 to 5 5/8" (10.2 to 14.3). Outline and orna- 
mentation very reminiscent of Barak Norman: double lines 
of purfling on belly and back; diamond design of purfling 
on back; stamped design in center of belly. (33) 

The viola da gamba survived in Germany longer than in 
other European countries. The neck, pegbox and carved 
head on this instrument are probably later 18th-century 
German work- 

Gift of Morris Steinert 



16 



TREBLE VIOLA DA GAMBA FRENCH l8TH CENTURY 



Made by Feyzeau in Bordeaux, 1748. 

Label: "Feyzeau / A / Bordeaux / 1748." Back stamped: 
"Feyzeau." Pine belly. Back and ribs of maple. 6 strings. 
Two-piece back. C holes. Pegbox terminates in a carved 
head. Ink purflings. Total length 24 3/4" (61.5), body 
length 14 1/4" (36.2), vibrating string length 12 1/2" 
(31.8), upper bouts 6 5/8" (16.8), center bouts 4 7/8" 
(12.4), lower bouts 7 7/8" (20), depth 2 to 3" (5 to 7.6). 

(212) 



The normal tuning for a treble viol is d g c 1 e 1 a 1 d\ These 
small instruments and their cousins, the ^-stringed pardessus 
de viole, were most popular in 18th-century France. 

Gift of the Friends of Music at Yale 

17 VIOLA D'AMORE GERMAN 1 8TH CENTURY 

Made by Gabriel David Buchstetter in Stadt am Hof, 1760. 
Label: "(Gabr)iel David Buchstetter Lauten und Geigen- 
macher Pediponte prope Ratisbonam Anno 1760." Pine 
belly, back and ribs of maple. Two-piece back. Flame holes. 
7 playing and 7 sympathetic strings. Pegbox terminates in 
a carved head. Dark brown varnish. Total length 31" 
(78.8), body length 153/4" (4°)> vibrating string length 
1411/16" (37.2), upper bouts 73/4" (19.6), center bouts 
5" (12.7), lower bouts 9 5/8" (24.4), maximum depth 
2 9/16" (6.4). (31) 

The viola d'amore is not a true viol: it is held li\e a violin, 
played without frets, often but not always has sympathetic 
strings. Walther's viola d'amore had 5 strings, Leopold 
Mozart's 6; after the mid-century 7 are usual. 

Gift of Morris Steinert 

18 VIOLONCELLO AUSTRIAN I9TH CENTURY 

Made by fohann Georg Staufer in Vienna, 1826. 
Experimental model. Label: "No. 1 Johannes Georgius 
Staufer Fecit Viennae Anno 1826." Pine belly. Maple back 
and ribs. One-piece, highly arched back. Crescent-shaped 
soundholes. 4 strings. Pegbox terminates in a scroll. Tables 
do not project beyond ribs. Belly, back and corners edged 
with ebony(?). Total length 50 1/4" (127.5), body length 
31 5/8" (80.3), vibrating string length 27 1/4" (69.2), upper 
bouts 16 1/8" (41), center bouts 9 1/16" (23), lower bouts 
16 5/8" (42.2). Yellow varnish. (205) 

This model is characteristic of the experiments in lutherie 
which preoccupied the early igth century. Already in 1803 
an article signed "Schubert" appeared in the Allgemeine 
Musi\alische Zeitung, advocating radical changes in violin 
structure. The great pioneer in this field was of course 
Chanot of Paris; but whereas he retains the traditional rela- 
tionship between upper and lower bouts, Staufer goes 
further and equalizes them. 

Gift of G. H. Langzettel 



19 



GUITAR GERMAN I7TH CENTURY 



Made by Joachim Tiel\e in Hamburg, late lyth century. 
Base of neck signed :"Tielcke" (sic). Pine belly with mother- 
of-pearl inlay. Back covered with tortoise-shell, inlaid on 
ivory background; ribs covered with .ivory inlaid on a 
tortoise-shell background. 6 strings. Arched back. Sunken 
4-tiered rose. No fixed frets. Total length 37" (94), body 
length 163/4" (4 2 -6), vibrating string length 269/16" 
(67.5), upper bouts 71/2" (19), center bouts 6 9/16" 
(16.6), lower bouts 9" (22.8), maximum depth 4 3/8" (11). 
Inlaid medallions on body are accompanied by superscribed 
French texts. Plate No. 19 b shows the contest between 
Apollo and Marsyas, entitled: "les ignorant (sic) en jugent 
des avantageus." 

The decoration of some of Tiel\e's instruments is so sump- 
tuous that Rene Vannes aptly characterizes them as 
"precieux objets de luxe." They are much sought-after 
collector's items. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 

20 GUITAR FRENCH l8TH CENTURY 

Made by Claude Boivin in Paris, 1749. 

Signed: "Claude Boivin 1749" at base of lower bouts. 
Pine belly. Back and ribs covered with diamonds of thin 
tortoise-shell, inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 6 strings. "Mous- 
tache"-type stringholder for 6 strings — a later addition — 
and 10 tuning pegs. Flat back. 12 fixed frets on neck. 
Elaborate deeply recessed rose. Total length 38 1/4" (92.7), 
body length 18" (45.7), upper bouts 8 1/4" (21), center 
bouts 73/8" (18.7), lower bouts 10" (25.4), depth 35/8" 
(9.2), vibrating string length 267/8" (68.4). 

Up to about the middle of the 18th century, guitars had- 5 
pairs of strings; then a change to 6 single strings too\ place. 
Hence the 10 tuning pegs, yet the "modernized" string- 
holder. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 



21 



CHITARRA BATTENTE ITALIAN l8TH CENTURY 



Made by Giovanni Antonio Vicenti in Verona, 1793. 

Label: "Fu fatta da me Giovani Antonio Vicenti anno 1793 



nel mese di gena(io) in contra Sangiorgio Verona." Pine 
belly. Back and ribs of walnut strips, separated by boxwood 
inlays. 5 three-choired metal strings, rib fastened. 15 tuning 
pegs. Total length 353/4" (90.2), body length 183/4" 
(47.6), vibrating string length 21" (53.3), upper bouts 
83/4" (22.3), center bouts 73/4" (19.7), lower bouts 
11 1/8" (28.2), maximum depth 5 5/8" (14.3). 7 fixed frets 
on neck. Crude sunken rose. (43) 

The chitarra battente usually had 5 double-choired strings. 
It differs in many respects from the guitar, most notably 
perhaps in having metal strings which are plectrum-plucked. 
This maker is not recorded elsewhere. 

Gift of Morris Steinert 



22 



LUTE GERMAN 20TH CENTURY 



Made by Hermann Hauser in Munich, 1919. 
Label: "Hermann Hauser Lautenmacher / Muenchen Bayer- 
strasse 33 Anno 1919 Manu Propria H. Hauser." 13 strings 
(6 pairs plus chanterelle). Chanterelle tuner is a recent ad- 
dition. Neck set at 90° angle. Pine belly. 9 satinwood ribs. 
Ornamental rose carved out of belly. 12 fixed frets on neck 
and belly. Total length 31" (79), vibrating string length 
25 3/8" (64.5), depth 6 1/2" (16.5). ^ (136) 

Hauser (1882 to 1952) is rather a curious phenomenon in 
the world of modern lutherie. His reputation, made while 
he was still alive, was not based on standard production — 
i.e. instruments of the violin family — but on his lutes, 
guitars, and viole d'amore. 

Gift of the Friends of Music at Yale 

23 OBOE GERMAN l8TH CENTURY 

Made by Johann Ferdinand Floth in Dresden, ca. 1800. 
Each joint stamped with crossed swords and: "Floth / 3." 
Bell stamped: "Floth in Dresden" and crossed swords. Box- 
wood with 9 square silver keys. No. 3 fingerhole is double. 
Length 22 1/4" (56.5), outer diameter of bell 3 9/16" (9). 

(196) 

Of the two original vent-holes on the bell, one is now 
plugged, and the other covered with a long-shanked \ey 
(b natural). 

Gift of the University of Pennsylvania 



24 SET OF 3 CLARINETS FRENCH 1 8TH CENTURY 

Made by Martin Freres (J. B. and Felix Martin) in Pans, ca. 
i860, and by Pierre Godefroy jeune in Paris, ca. 1840. 
An A, Bb and C clarinet in a mahogany case. The A clarinet 
stamped on each joint: "Martin Fres. A Paris." Boxwood. 
Ivory mounts. 14 German silver keys. Length 27 1/4" 
(69.1), diameter of bell 3 1/8" (7.9). The Bb clarinet in- 
scribed as above. Boxwood. German silver mounts. 14 
German silver keys. Length 26" (66), diameter of bell 
3 1/8" (7.9). The C clarinet stamped on each joint: "Pierre 
Godfroy Jeune a Paris." Boxwood. Ivory mounts. 13 brass 
keys. Length 237/8" (60.6), diameter of bell 3 1/4" (8.3). 

(226, 227, 228) 

Now obsolete, the C clarinet was part of the clarinettist's 
standard equipment during the latter part of the 19th 
century, as we see here. 

Gift of W. I. Treadway 

25 BUGLE FRENCH I5TH CENTURY 

Maker unknown. Southern France. 

Gilded copper on a copper undersheet. Silver rim at end 
of flare. Silver cup-type mouthpiece attached to instrument. 
Embossed letters "E G" repeated on ornamental back- 
ground. Length 123/8" (31.4), diameter at flare 3 1/2" 
(8.8), length of mouthpiece 2" (5). 15th century workman- 
ship, probably southern French. 

The bugle or bugle horn — the latter a pleonasm, by the way, 
since both words point to an animal origin — occurs in 
literature from the 13th century on; the "bugle horn" is 
forgotten later, and is both "invented" and patented in the 
19th century. 

On loan from the Belle Skinner Collection of Old Musical 
Instruments 

26 TRUMPET GERMAN l8TH AND I9TH CENTURIES 

Bell made by Michael Sauerle in Munich, 19th century. 
Natural trumpet in Eb of 18th-century make, with 19th- 
century bell, engraved: "Michael Sauerle in Muenchen." 
Brass with 2 bends. Length 27" (68), length of air column 
(without mouthpiece) 83" (210.8), diameter of bell 4 1/8" 
(10.4). (221) 

University purchase, 1957 



Three thousand copies of this catalogue designed by Norman Ives 

have been printed by the Meriden Gravure Company in January ig6o 

for the Friends of Music at Yale 

and the Yale University Art Gallery Associates. 

Photography by Ronald Bin\s 





Date 


Due 




$fpt «* * 








HPT 1 I 4rtA * 






Jlv 1. * • 


























TITLE 



- Musical instrum ents atJTale. 



ML462.Y24M3 



3 5002 00186 8269 

Yale University. 

Musical instruments at Yale; a selection 



ML 

462 
Y24M3 



Musical Instruments at Yale 



4